專欄一。地標與日常

 Column 1st Iconic Building vs. Everyday Architecture 

臺灣,一個位於亞洲樞紐的海島,關鍵的地理位置造就從古至今多元的移民文化以及多種製造型產業的興盛。隨著科技的日新月異以及全球化下的經濟脈動,臺灣的產業不斷在這過程中轉型與蛻變,全球化過程所帶來的產業衝擊與經濟模式的更迭,在建築產業界也不例外。

過去30年來,隨著經濟全球化與資訊大爆炸緊鑼密鼓的席捲世界各個角落,產業鏈的分工已被打散至世界各地再進行串連,各行各業所面對的競爭對手以及合作對象不再侷限於自己的領土或周邊國家,即使是落根於土地的建築業也同樣捲入此一全球化競爭的漩渦之中,世界級的明星建築師也因運而生,開始在全球各地落下他們的標籤,而這些所謂的「明星建築」也在這過程中順理成章似的為每座城市落款,成為一個城市的標的與代表。

在都市中,只有總建築量2%的明星建築、地標建築是否足以代表一座城市?不可否認台北101大樓確實代表臺灣或台北在建築設計、工程技術及金融經濟的成就,然而台北101大樓卻無法反映臺灣當代的建築現象及人們生活的真實狀態。它彰顯的僅是此一時代的片段,離現實生活於城市之中的人們日常生活依舊遙遠。貼近並顯現真實在地社會文化的始終是廣布於城市中那絕大多數的98%日常建築。它們毫不掩飾地反映人們真實生活的需求與慾望,詮釋人們的社會網絡與日常生活的多元樣貌。在蓬勃的臺灣社會底下,文化融合與人民生活需求的本體意識遍佈城市各個角落,隨處可以看見人們為了適應生活與環境為空間所作的「調整」,豐富而大量,儼然成為臺灣城市文化的一個基因一般,這些日常建築扣合著人們的生活,深植於你我的日常生活之中。

面對Nolli Plan以黑色與白色清晰地表達城市紋理中公共與私密的空間關係時,臺灣的城市無法以單純的黑色及白色表達空間的關係,臺灣日常建築的輪廓線、邊界是一個動態的調整過程,公共與私密空間不是二元對立的關係,而是相互滲透產生不同程度的灰色,甚至需要以更多的色彩呈現臺灣都市多元、豐富的生活樣貌。

在全球化之劇的當代,臺灣建築不只是大師的明星設計,而是我們每天生活於其中的空間。明星建築、標誌性建築無法反映當今建築前線正在發生的事,這些時時刻刻發生卻不被建築師們所重視的構築行動,使得臺灣的建築早已超越了建築師設計的想像,並且持續蓬勃著。

這些蓬勃發展的日常建築,正是台灣城市空間最重要的特色之一,是擁有方便豐富的生活系統。這種「混合使用」的都市土地使用模式,完全不同於Nolli Plan所描繪的西方土地分區觀念。混合使用使得臺北的「可居性」高過世界上許多城市。更重要的是,臺灣的混合使用並非刻意計畫的結果,反倒是在都市計畫並不鼓勵或完全忽視的情形下,由人們日常生活自發成長而來,因此更顯珍貴。

 

aiwan is an island located at a key position in Asia. Its geographical location has resulted in its diverse immigrant culture and the rise of various manufacturing industries. Over the process of rapid technological advancement and economic globalization, Taiwan’s industries continue to transition and transform. Globalization has brought impacts to industries and changes to economic models, and these impacts are also evident in architecture.

Over the past thirty years, globalization and information explosion have taken the entire world by storm, and supply chain has been broken up and scattered around the world, and then reconnected; all industries no longer just have competitors and partners from own or neighboring countries. Even with its deep roots in native soils, the architecture industry is also engaged in global competition; world-class star architects emerge and begin to leave their marks all around the world. Through the process, these so-called “star architects” has also left in various cities their signatures, which have become the landmarks and icons of these cities.

In a city, iconic buildings and landmark architectural projects account for just 2% of all buildings, are they enough to represent one entire city? Undoubtedly, Taipei 101 represents achievements in architectural design, engineering, and finance and economy of Taiwan or Taipei; however, Taipei 101 cannot reflect Taiwan’s contemporary architectural phenomena and the real life of its people. It only manifests a fragment of this era, and remains distant from the everyday life of the people living in the city. The remaining 98% of all buildings that scatter throughout the city, the everyday architecture, are what faithfully reflect and manifest real local social culture. They honestly reflect people’s real daily needs and desires, and interpret people’s social network and diverse everyday life. Underneath the vibrant Taiwanese society, the subjective consciousness of cultural integration and people’s living needs occupies all corners of the city; “adjustments” made by people to

adapt to the lifestyle and environment can be found everywhere. The adjustments come in rich diversity and large quantity, and have seemingly become genes of Taiwan’s urban culture. These everyday architectures correspond to people’s life and are deeply embedded in our everyday life.

The Nolli Plan uses black and white to clearly convey the relation between public and private spaces of a city’s urban texture; however, Taiwanese cities cannot use just black and white to express the spatial relation. The skyline or border of Taiwan’s everyday architecture is a dynamic process of adjustments. Public and private spaces are not in a binary opposition; rather, they permeate each other to produce different shades of grey, and more colors may be needed to present the diverse and rich lifestyle in Taiwanese cities.

In today’s world of rapid globalization, Taiwanese architecture is not just about star projects by renowned architects, but the spaces we live in everyday. Star projects and iconic architectures cannot reflect what is going on at the front. These constructions neglected by architects constantly take place, enabling Taiwanese architecture to transcend beyond all imaginations of architects, and continue to thrive.

These Everyday Architectures are one of the most defining features of Taiwan cities’ urban space is the abundance and convenience of urban amenities. This “mixed-use” mode for urban land use is drastically different from the Nolli’s Plan of Western concept of single-use zoning. Nevertheless, mixed-use zoning has made Taiwan cities’ “livability” much higher than many other cities in the world. More importantly, the mixed-use pattern in Taiwan was not a result of careful and purposeful urban planning; instead, the land use pattern evolved organically without much monitoring, making Taiwan’s case of mix-used development even more rare.

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