專欄六。發掘創新建築的原型

 Column 6th The Prototype of Innovative Architecture 

 

回應因地制宜的涵構問題、回應就地取材的構築問題,當代臺灣建築師法日常,從日常建築中尋找契機。在臺灣的建築前線,有一群素人建築師,從環境中習得了關於建築中重要的涵構與構築觀念。而專業的建築師、設計師們,在這場戰役中需要扮演更積極的角色。每一個世代的建築躍進往往是因為,材料、工法的技術突破,創造了建築邁向下一個世代,如同水晶宮以玻璃、鋼鐵,快速的搭建了一個輕巧的建築,並且創造了不可思議的全新空間感受。
當代的臺灣建築邁向下一世代的契機,在於從環境中尋找困境、發掘問題,從在地的建築環境中尋找機會,從傳統的製造業中尋找解決方案。建築師不再只是扮演一個「創意」的供應者,更需要扮演一個「價值」的供應者。建築師所提供的價值,不只是經濟的價值,更需要提供社會的價值,滿足環境社會的需求。建築師走入日常生活,看到人們的需要與慾望,提供一個創新的可能性。讓建築不只是大建築師的個人表現,也不只是混亂的群體個人意識展現,建築需要滿足每一個人的需求,需要滿足群體對未來環境的想像。
面對逐漸暖化的地球,面對專業建築師與日常生活日漸擴大的代溝,臺灣館「台灣再製」企圖不直接面對建築的沉重,而是透過創新材料的研發與應用,以創新的構築方法回應日常生活的需求以及回應環境問題。透過深入研究當代臺灣建築的現象,面對鄉村及都市的不同涵構,透過不同原型的開發,呈現創新建築的可能性。這正是臺灣人面對建築前線的報導,不僅改善自然環境與人類文明的關係,更消彌設計專業與日常生活的隔閡。

Contemporary Taiwanese architecture faces contextual issues of local conditions and tectonic issues of local materials, and finds inspirations from everyday life and looks for opportunities within everyday architecture. At the front of Taiwanese architecture, a group of amateur architects have acquired vital tectonic and contextual concepts of architecture from the environment; professional architects and designers, on the other hand, should play a more active role in this battle. Every great leap in architecture was usually caused by breakthroughs in materials or construction techniques, propelling architecture into a new phase. For example, Crystal Palace used glass and steel to quickly construct a lightweight structure, and created an unimaginable new spatial sensation.
For Taiwanese contemporary architecture to move into the next generation, it should identify crisis and discover issues in the environment, and look for opportunities within local architectural environment and solutions from traditional manufacturing industries. Architects are no longer playing the role of providers of “creativity;” they should be providers of “value.” Not only should architects provide economic value, they should also provide social value, responding to the needs of the environment and society. Architects should walk into everyday life and see what people need and desire, providing them possibilities of innovation so that architectures are not just the personal expressions of great architect, or chaotic expressions of collective individual consciousness; architecture should answer to everyone’s needs, and satisfy the collective imagination for future environment.

Facing the issues of global warming and the widening gap between professional architecture and everyday life, Taiwan Pavilion’s “Re:Made in Taiwan” tries not to directly tackle the heavy topic of architecture, but to respond to daily needs and environmental issues with innovative construction methods through R&D and applications of innovative materials. By probing deep into contemporary architectural phenomena in Taiwan, the exhibition aims to present the possibility of innovative architecture through developing different prototypes in response to different contexts in rural and urban areas. This is Taiwanese people’s report on the front of architecture; not only should architecture improve the relation between natural environment and human civilization, it should also alleviate the gap between professional designs and everyday life.

本屆威尼斯建築雙年展臺灣館,揭示創新建築的原型及可能性。這個原型是由國立交通大學跨領域設計科學研究中心及永豐餘,(一個設計研究智庫及一個全球知名的企業)共同合作的成果,創造了一個零碳排的綠色願景。

此原型由nPulp製成,這個材料由回收的秸稈製成。由於快速生長的特性,這些秸稈每年可以收穫二至四次,並透過天然酵素製造。透過nPulp的可持續性供應鏈及物流基礎設施,以往被視為廢棄物的農業秸稈,成為農民的經濟作物。nPulp技術及材料已經開發了十二年,並在2014年入圍愛迪生獎。TDIS將它轉化成為建築材料及系統,成為了21世紀的磚,向建築的前線推進。簡單的說,只要有稻米生長,就有可以滿足居住的需求的房子。透過這個原型,秸稈被回收成為nPulp紙磚。向牛的消化系統學習的「地景消化系統」,讓整個生產過程成為一種生物機制,取代石頭、灰、土在建築的歷程。透過回收秸稈取代燃燒,讓建築及營造真正實踐從搖籃到搖籃的理念。

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In 2016 Venice Biennale Taiwan Exhibition, we present the prototypes of innovative architecture and its possibilities which were the collaboration between TDIS and YFY, a design-research brain-trust lab and a world renowned enterprise, dedicates itself to“zero emission green vision” project.

The Prototype is made of Npulp, which is made from straw which is considered ultra-rapidly renewable because harvested two to four times per year in each climate zone. Npulp is then produced through a proprietary enzymatic process. Additionally, the Npulp sustainability supply chain is supported with a logistics system and infrastructure to facilitate harvesting and collection. Excess straw, formerly considered waste, becomes a cash crop for farmers.

Npulp, the technology and the material which has been developing in the past 12 years, was named 2014 Edison Award Finalist and is now transforming itself into building material and system by TDIS Lab. Npulp into the “21st Century Brick” that becomes the “rock-the-world” groundings to push the frontier of architecture. In a nut shell, as long as there are rice growing, there will be housing for those in need.

With this prototype, rice/wheat straws are recycled into Npulp “Paper Brick.” By learning from the cow digestion system, the whole farming-building system is a bio-mechanism: “Landscape Digestion System.” Instead of quarrying stone, clay and soil in the process of building; rather than burning wasted straws in the cycle of farming, Architecture and construction is now truly cradle-to-cradle practice.